Male factors that affect fertility include the following categories:
- Pretesticular: Congenital or acquired diseases of the hypothalamus, pituitary, or peripheral organs that alter the hypothalamic-pituitary axis
- Testicular: Genetic or nongenetic
- Posttesticular: Congenital or acquired factors that disrupt normal transport of sperm through the ductal system
Treatment of infertility
Treatment plans are based on the diagnosis, duration of infertility, and the woman's age. Management of any underlying female and/or male factors affecting fertility may include medical treatment (eg, pharmacotherapy), surgical intervention, or both.